Thermal criteria off embryos may constrain brand new time and you may length of brand new foraging travel during incubation ( Webb 1987)

Thermal criteria off embryos may constrain brand new time and you may length of brand new foraging travel during incubation ( Webb 1987)

It’s generally accepted that the position, attendance, and you will cover of colony could be the chief facts one to determine brand new stability regarding eggs plus the rates regarding colony predation ( Arnold et al. 1987, Martin 1995, Cresswell 1997). Constancy while in the incubation provides a great thermal ecosystem towards advancement regarding embryos and you can handles eggs from extreme temperature that could apply at its hatchability ( Grant 1982). Inside species where just one sex incubates, there’s a trade-out of between attendance and safeguards of nest and you may restoration from a good energy equilibrium ( Thompson and you will Ravelin 1987, Flint and Grand 1999). While doing so, colony desire can also be reduce the danger of eggs predation both of the productive nest defense or down seriously to a reduced amount of the fresh incubation ages of eggs, hence a reduced total of time he could be exposed to predators ( Clutton-Brock 1991, Creswell 1997, Flint and Grand 1999).


Inside Greater Rheas (Rhea americana), parental worry is accomplished entirely by the guys, having female restricting the resource into the development and laying from egg. Rhea males make the nest, incubate the newest egg, and you can look after the chicks after hatching ( Muniz 1885, Bruning 1974, Fernandez and you may Reboreda 1998). Where types, the fresh new mating program brings together harem polygyny and you can sequential polyandry ( Muniz 1885, Bruning 1974). Early in the brand new breeding season (August–September) men vie to possess, and safeguard a group otherwise harem of 5 to help you seven lady. A man copulates toward women at least once most of the a few to three weeks. Lady place egg all the forty eight h for ten–12 weeks during the a communal nest ( Bruning 1974, Fernandez and Reboreda 1998). Chicks hatch synchronously in addition to their worry is performed exclusively of the men ( Bruning 1974, Fernandez and you may Reboreda 1998). Following women complete the laying on basic male they can also be copulate and you may place egg for the next male ( Muniz 1885, Bruning 1974).

Right here, we evaluated the brand new the amount regarding Better Rhea male adult care during the egg and chick degree. We counted colony appeal of the men and its impact on new viability and you will emergency off egg. I checked-out if or not men absences into the incubation was basically timed to help you avoid embryos getting together uygun baДџlantД± with dangerous temperature during the invention, or to slow down the likelihood of eggs predation. I examined the end result off nest focus towards the stability away from the fresh egg of the contrasting heat regarding egg during the day for the nests that have and you will without male desire. Furthermore, i analyzed aftereffect of men proper care to your odds of egg predation of the contrasting the newest success away from eggs into the nests which have and without male worry. On the other hand, we assessed the the amount from adult proper care immediately after hatching and you may analyzed its relative cost because of the comparing the time allocated to feeding and you can vigilance by the males that have chicks, nonreproductive solitary men and you can men when you look at the nonreproductive communities.

Studies town

The analysis are held within the reproduction (August–January) and you will nonbreeding (January–July) season from 1993–1997, in two spatially contiguous cows ranches away from step 3,500 and you can 800 ha. The individuals ranches had been discovered close to the city of Standard Lavalle inside the the brand new province away from Buenos Aires, Argentina (36°25’S, 56°56’W). A society from ?eight hundred rheas are was able thereon analysis city, with an excellent sex proportion biased slightly with the men (55% men and you can 45% females). The research area was a moderate grassland included in the therefore-entitled flooding pampa ( Soriano 1991). The bedroom is flat, low, and you will marshy, with little of land ascending >10 m over sea-level. Local flowers is composed of short turf variety with scattered patches out of woodland from the highest elements. One town can be used nearly exclusively for cows husbandry nonetheless has actually a few crazy populations away from Deeper Rheas. In our analysis web site, mature rheas don’t have sheer predators currently (i.age. cougars [Felis concolor]) however, Crested Caracara (Polyborus plancus), Chimango Caracara (Milvago chimango), gray foxes (Dusicyon gymnocercus), grisons (Galictis sp.), and opossums (Didelphis albiventris) sufferer greatly towards rhea chicks. Other non-indigenous predators which will assault both adults and you will chicks are feral pets (M. Beade pers. obs.) but we have zero research one that kind of predation had taken place for the studies months.


Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on whatsapp
Ouvrir le chat
???? Besoin d'aide ?
Scan the code
Bonjour ????
Pouvons-nous vous aider?